The men, who are residents of Behror, where the incident happened on the Jaipur Highway, were arrested along with 11 others. According to reports the men have denied being members of either the Vishwa Hindu Parishad or the Bajrang Dal.
On Saturday, a large group of gau rakshaks had attacked Pehlu Khan and four others while they were transporting cattle along the Alwar highway.
When police reached the spot, they left the five men behind and fled. The men were hospitalised, but Khan, 55, a resident of Haryana, succumbed to his injuries on Monday night.
Police said Khan and four others were attacked even as they produced documents to show that they had purchased the cows.
The Rajasthan police has also announced a reward of Rs 5,000 for information on the other unidentified suspects.
Rajasthan home minister Gulab Chand Kataria had justified the attack by gau rakshaks saying that both parties were to be blamed for Pehlu Khans death. He said illegal transport of cows was banned in the state.